Gene cloning produces copies of gene segments of DNA. Prisila Monrroy Mr Bonnet Communications Arts 24 April Cloning speech Suppose that every.
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- Human Cloning Essay - IELTS Sample Essays
- Protection of genetic heritage in the era of cloning
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Since then, there has been a serious debate on the ethicality of any cloning activities, especially by the religious community. This led to the establishment of the cloning prohibition act that took effect in the year The proper definition of cloning is the reproduction of a replicate organism without fertilization or fusion of gonad cells. Somatic cells from a donor are extracted, and the nucleus is fused with that of a host egg using in vitro fertilization. Fertilization then occurs leading to the development of a blastocyst which then develops into an embryonic cell.
The resulting organism then turns out to be genetically identical to the donor. However, this creates a big issue. All human beings, as well as other living organisms, have a unique genetic makeup.
Human Cloning Essay - IELTS Sample Essays
Cloning will create many issues when it comes to the unique identification of persons. There is another type of cloning known as cosmetic cloning. After the blastocyst forms, it gets extracted for use in other purposes. The reason for this is that the cells within a blastocyst are not yet differentiated. This means that they can grow into any specialized tissues. This method of cloning has many potential benefits, especially in the medical field. Damaged organs can be replaced or cloned thus saving lives. In cases whereby a person experiences loss of specialized tissues through an accident or a disease, this method can be very appropriate in the regeneration of such specialized tissues that the body cannot naturally regenerate.
One good example is in the regeneration of nervous tissues especially those at the spinal cord. This has the potential of bringing hope to millions of people who are paralyzed through enabling them to live a normal life. However, there are several challenges involved in cloning. For one, the technology is still at its infancy.
Protection of genetic heritage in the era of cloning
This leaves much room for grave errors that can have dire consequences both at present and in the future. For example, scientists have not yet found a way of effectively splitting the telomeres during cell division. Another problem is the fear of the unknown. Cloning might involve altering the genetic material of a person to get rid of unwanted traits. Furthermore, when this is done on a germ cell, the traits can be carried forward to future generations.
Therefore, the issue of cloning is still under serious debate by scientists, professionals and even within academic institutions as well as politics. Currently, cloning is illegal across 23 countries. Whether or not the practice will become universally acceptable is still under serious debate.
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After all, the interest and welfare of the human being should prevail over the sole interest of society or science as stated in article 2 of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine One gets the impression that by creating a trivialization of a theme of such importance, turns it into a 'thing'. The development of research in embryology has to be viewed with caution, always with respect for human dignity so as not to run the risk of carrying out artificial procreation disconnected from all the human values of the couple who wish to procreate.
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While techniques are aimed at solving problems of infertility, it has popular acceptance and approval. When the procedure becomes distant from the goals chosen by society, as, for example, the choice of only male offspring with previously selected features and cloning, rejection is total. The social group knows the permissive rules for coexistence in harmonic acceptance.
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Here Montesquieu's masterpiece "The Spirit of the Laws" comes to mind, when he designed the spontaneous fulfillment of the law, in the sense that if every person had their share of social commitment and their ethical reading was in tune,the law is obeyed without attracting attention. Antiphon, the Greek sophist, whose work was partially lost, introduced the concept of"consent of the governed" to express that only laws made by men require approval, the others, originating from the people's own ethics, do not require evaluation as they carry the binding spirit.
International law rejects the cloning technique because it is believed to be a procedure without ethics that affronts the principles of human nature itself. It is well known with experiments on animals that many attempts are needed with the destruction of numerous embryos to achieve the objective as the procedure in not efficient but is related to repeated miscarriages of malformed fetuses and early death.
Scott, in objective calculus, announced that: "According to one source, of 17, attempts at reproductive cloning using at least five mammalian species, Of those mammals that were born, many died soon after" This is not to mention the difficulty of establishing the genetic and hereditary vocation, to know who is the father and who the son, and so on. Accepted scientific interventions to control or even to definitely eliminate diseases so that man can enjoy his existence with more dignity is one thing, but to give him the power to replicate a human being alive or dead, is far from the consent of mankind.
It is even inhuman. Even socially there are no benefits with the replication of human beings. On the contrary, all technological procedures must provide dividends for the health and life of man. The principle of social justice proclaimed by bioethics has the same recommendation. As Maienschein observed: "Others raised important issues of social justice, many of which had been raised about genomics. If we invest so much public funding in as cientific project, how will it serve the public? What else should we be doing with that money instead?
This is one argument against funding such research, but not against the research in itself. Others noted that once we have developed technologies and medical procedures that are very expensive and must necessarily be limited to only a few, there will be unequal access to those "goods" Man is a being that has been biologically programmed to complete a series of steps in life.
Man is born, matures and dies. Thus, even in the face of a simplistic view, each one carries within him a routine that gives the character of continuity and ensures the perpetuation of humankind. These delimiting obstacles make man invest into finding longevity. This excess of ambition is projected into the unknown in an incessant search to create techniques in order to reduce the time necessary for human reproduction and to create new individuals according to the scientist's own interests,through cloning.
In other words, man intends to be his own creator. Thus, science has discovered new technologies that can change human life. Increasingly the scientific investigative spirit penetrates into the unexplored prohibitive regions of the human body and from there acquires rich information that allows a line of new research. Such deep hidden corners, however, shelter the so-called genetic material and many voices have risen to stop the curiosity going beyond the line demarcated by nature.
It is true that man has the right to search his genotype, to know how it is structured through medical genetics and to become aware of diseases that he carries in his genes which may have a cure. Then studies involving stem cells were started and today, experimentally, it is possible to perform cell reprogramming, to cause cells to revert to their original condition of pluripotent stem cells that can be applied in regenerative therapies so that embryonic cells are not sacrificed.
The cloning of Dolly the sheep had a great impact on the scientific community and prepared the argument against such experiments involving human beings. This was the starting point of the great ethical, medical, scientific and religious debate that mankind had been avoiding. The procreation of a human, not by a combination of reproduction materials from a man and a woman, but by the union of an egg and a somatic cell, without even knowing the true identity of phenotype, is totally against the laws laid down by nature and the common sense of the average man.
The life cycle of man is prearranged so that he can live in a dignified manner through all its phases, in their individuality and uniqueness. With death, the human cycle ends and nothing else, except what he produced during his lifetime, will be remembered and taken advantage of. Cloning brings several types of consequences and,obligatorily, will shock the natural structure of mankind. Butman does not carry only physical aspects, but also features of the soul, as Aristotle cautions in Nicomachean Ethics.
Cloning can reproduce the original person, not with the desired perfection, and in no way it reproduces the intellectual, volitional part, where the central controls of the entire human are located.